Electronic Configuration Of Gallium | 6 Important Points

Electronic Configuration Of Gallium | 6 Important Points

What Is The Electronic Configuration Of Gallium?

Gallium is a chemical element with two valence electrons in its outer shell. According to the periodic table, it’s found in a similar form in gallium nitride and gallium arsenide semiconductors—the electronic configuration of Gallium: 3d15s1.

Introduction to the Electronic Configuration of Gallium

Gallium is a chemical element with the symbol Ga and atomic number 31. The atom has 31 protons and 30 neutrons in its nucleus. Gallium is the third element in Group 3, period 6 of the periodic table. Elemental Gallium is a silver-gray metallic element, but it occurs in nature as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and insoluble metalloid.

Gallium has a melting point of 2823 °C (5348 °F) and boils at 2478 °C (4646 °F). The boiling point of the solid is 2729 °C (5252 °F), which means that this element does not boil at all. Gallium is the only metal with a higher boiling point than its melting point. Gallium is hardened by cold working. The alloy with 3% of Gallium is used as an alloying element in aluminum production, while this metal appears in the form of gallium arsenide (GaAs) semiconductor materials.

What does the electronic configuration of Gallium tell us?

Gallium is a chemical element. It has the symbol Ga and atomic number 31. It usually occurs in two possible oxidation states, 0 and 3. All its compounds are trivalent gallium ions with Ga3+ in metallic Gallium like gallium nitride GaN3 and gallium arsenide GaAs. The formation of the compounds of Ga forms a series of chains. The three elements used in the first stage, arsenic, silver, and indium, form one row, and the next element in this row, boron, joins this to form the second row of gallium atoms.

 In the third row, elemental Gallium joins aluminum to form gallium arsenide. The fourth row of elements B, Al, and Ga forms one row, B3Al, and Ga3Al.

The compounds of Gallium are not pure. Gallium is electron deficient, which means that it has relatively few electrons in its outer orbitals compared to other metals like magnesium or zinc. The valence shell of gallium atoms is only 2-5 electrons, so the metal does not have strong bonds with other atoms. Gallium compounds are more stable than metal since the outer shell is empty and does not have strong bonds with other atoms.

These properties make Gallium valuable for making semiconductors such as transistors, diodes, and LEDs. Gallium does not react with water or carbon dioxide to form compounds as most metals do. Only a few compounds of Gallium are known to exist in nature. The most familiar compound is GaAs which is used to make semiconductors used in electronics.

GaAs can also be used to make photovoltaic devices and lasers. Another Gallium compound is GaP which is often called gallium phosphide. It is made by reacting Ga3 with phosporpyridine pyrazine, consisting of phosphorus and a nitrogen-based molecule called pyridine.

Electronic Configuration Of Gallium | 6 Important Points

How do you calculate the electronic configuration of Gallium?

Gallium is a chemical element with the symbol Ga and atomic number 31. It is an alkali metal in group 3 of the periodic table. Gallium was discovered in 1875 by French chemist Paul Emile Lévy. It is sometimes called the rare earth metal because it has a similar ionic radius to other metals in the group but a shallow melting point. Gallium is less dense than aluminum and has 26 electrons in its outer shell, making it an electropositive metal.

The electronic configuration of Gallium is [Ar]3d5s2. Each atom has three unpaired valence electrons resulting in some instability. Also, note that the central atom (Gallium) has 18 electrons in its outer shell.

However, Gallium is relatively stable and can be made in the laboratory. Gallium first gains prominence as a stabilizing element for aluminum alloys. It was used to make one of the most commonly used materials – indium-gallium arsenide (InGaAs), which is used in modern semiconductors, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), infrared detectors, laser diodes, gallium nitride (GaN), and high-performance infrared detectors.

Gallium has six allotropes, with mass numbers of 22, 23, 25, 27, 28, and 29. All of these are pretty stable under normal conditions. The hexagonal crystal structure is the most common allotropic form (allotropes A to D). However, Gallium also occurs as a polycrystalline material (allotropes A and B) in which it forms irregular grains. 

The ground state of the electronic configuration of Gallium

The ground state of the electronic configuration of Gallium is 1s22s1. This means that the electrons are in their lowest energy state and cannot be excited by photons. Gallium has a valence of 3, so it needs five unpaired electrons to fill its outer orbital. Atoms with a valence of 3 are called trivalent. While Gallium has only two valence electrons, aluminum has five, boron seven, and nitrogen eighteen. So Gallium is considered an electrode while aluminum is not.

Most metals contain only one type of atom in their outermost orbital. The most common element in the outermost orbital is iron with its 2s2 configuration. It contains 26 electrons, four more than Gallium but fewer than aluminum because iron has a higher valence of 6.5. Iron is the most crucial element in the periodic table because it is so reactive and is abundant in nature.

Excited-state of the electronic configuration of Gallium

The electronic configuration of Gallium, when it is exciting, has only two electrons. This is called a π-bond. The additional electron is shared between the two atoms, residing on one of the two atoms. The energy levels of excited Gallium are shown in the following diagram. The energy levels for these two atoms share the two electrons found in the ground state.

In an excited state, Ga has lower energy than Sb, but there is more overlap between the two energy levels. The bonds are weaker than they would be if they were in a ground state.

Electronic Configuration of Gallium Atoms in Excited State: 2s22p5 Electronic Configuration of Gallium Atoms in Ground State: 2s22p4 Electrons are shared between the two atoms, with one residing on each. The energy levels for excited Sb and Ga atoms are shown here. Bonding (Covalent) vs. Antibonding (ionic) forces form an essential part of all chemistry, so it is worth mentioning that when electrons move from one atom to another, they can take either a bonding or an antibonding path. 

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Conclusion

Gallium is a chemical element with the symbol Ga and atomic number 31. It is the third-most-common element in the Earth’s crust, behind aluminum and silicon. It is a transition metal with three allotropes: α-gallium, β-gallium, and γ-gallium. It has these chemical properties: Gallium tarnishes in air and water at room temperature but is corrosion-resistant. The melting point of Gallium is 443.3 °C (724.9 °F) (rigid Gallium), 444.5 °C (747.5 °F) (soft Gallium), and 446.3 °C (758.9 °F) (malleable Gallium). Gallium is usually alloyed with aluminum, arsenic, and indium because of its low melting point. Gallium was discovered in 1875 by the French chemist Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, who extracted it from bauxite. 

Electronic Configuration Of Gallium | 6 Important Points

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