Top Facts You May Not Know About Platinum Electronic Configuration
Platinum (chemical symbol Pt) is a chemical element with “Pt” and atomic number 78. It is a thick, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silver-white transition metal. Platinum is one of the most occasional elements in Earth’s crust, with an average abundance of approximately five µg/kg. It emerges in some nickel and copper ores and some native deposits in South Africa, which accounts for 80% of the world’s production.
What is the electron configuration for platinum?
The electron configuration for platinum is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1. English chemist William Hyde Wollaston first isolated the element in 1803.
When isolated, platinum metal contains 92.5% Pt, 7.5% Ru, and 0.1% Os isotopic compositions; yet, the Ru content can be as high as 2% and the Os content as high as 0.4%. The metal is ductile and malleable and becomes complex and brittle with age. The white metallic luster slowly darkens in the air and loses its luster in water. When found naturally, it is usually with other platinum group metals. It is resistant to corrosion by alkalis, sulfuric and hydrochloric acids, elemental chlorine, and nitric acid. It dissolves slowly in strong mineral acids. Platinum does not react with water or moist air.
It is used as a catalyst for specific chemical reactions and in controlled atmospheres to grow single silicon carbide crystals. The monoxide has the formula SiO. It is a colorless solid that sublimes upon heating. Like its oxygen analog, ozone, it is prepared by careful oxidation of silicon in an electric arc.
Why does platinum have an exceptional electronic configuration?
Platinum has an exceptional electronic configuration because it is the only metal transition element in the fourth period. This means that although its oxidation state is +2, the sixth period has two transition elements (Ti and V) that could act as d-block metals. The third period also has three transition elements (Cr, Mn, Fe) acting as d-block metals.
This makes it an excellent material for catalysis because it should create a homogeneous catalyst system from the metal, a ligand, and a redox mediator. One important example is the selective oxidation of CO to CO2 using Ru and a ligand. The reaction occurs at temperatures as low as –100°C, and the catalyst can be recycled more than 500 times without activity loss. The synthesis of imines (a key starting material for many pharmaceuticals) from formaldehyde and amines also relies on these catalysts.
Working with simple alkali metals such as lithium, sodium, and potassium has clear limitations. These elements react with water, air, and organic solvents. Lithium and sodium have the greatest of two valence electrons each, so they are difficult to oxidize and reduce. Potassium is more reactive than the others but can be handled in a fume hood. In contrast, rubidium and cesium have a more significant number of valence electrons, and their chemistry is closer to that of transition metals.
What are the unique properties of platinum that arise from its electronic configuration?
Platinum is a unique metal because it has a specific electronic configuration that gives it unique properties. Its electronic configuration is d10s2, which means it has 10 electrons in its outer shell. This gives platinum a solid and stable structure, making it a good choice for jewelry and other decorative items. Platinum is also a very dense metal, and this helps to give it a high specific gravity. That means that platinum weighs more than most other metals of the same size, making it a weighty material. It is not the heaviest metal, but it is heavier. Some platinum alloys are less dense than lead.
Platinum is denser than tungsten, gold, and silver. It is not as dense as uranium or plutonium, however. For example, the density of lead is 11.34 g/cm3 (62 lb/ft3), and that of plutonium is 16.7 g/cm3 (114 lb/ft3). Platinum’s density is 21.45 g/cm3 (133 lb/ft3), making it almost twice as dense as lead.
Platinum is a malleable metal, meaning it can be hammered into thin sheets or rolled into long strips. This property is shared by zinc, another metal that reacts with sulfuric acid to produce hydrogen gas. The researchers speculated that adding a small amount of zinc might ease the reaction between platinum and the acid, producing hydrogen at a greater rate.
When added in trace amounts, as little as 0.2 percent by weight, zinc increased the hydrogen production by 50-fold compared to platinum alone.
How does platinum’s electronic configuration make it an ideal material for electronic applications?
Platinum is an adequate conductor of electricity and has a stable electronic configuration, making it an ideal material for electronic applications. Platinum is a suitable catalyst. It is used in hydrogen catalysts for fuel cells to produce electricity from hydrogen.
Platinum has the highest melting point among all the precious metals at 3695 °C (6212 °F).
Platinum is very resistant to corrosion. It does not respond to oxygen in the air, water, or other common chemicals. Platinum is often found in natural alloys with other platinum group metals and osmium. Common platinum group metals include iridium, palladium, rhodium, osmium, ruthenium, and nickel.
In jewelry, platinum is most alloyed with gold, ruthenium, iridium, rhodium, palladium, or silver (otherwise known as white gold). Platinum also forms alloys with osmium, rhenium, tungsten, rhodium, iridium, and iridium.
Platinum is noted for its corrosion resistance, even at high temperatures, and this property is the most valuable in the manufacturing and industrial applications of platinum. Pure platinum is a soft metal that can be scratched with a fingernail and is marred by abrasives and surface contamination.